Latest Work

Hello, I am trying something new with my website. I mostly tend to my Flickr gallery at this point, so to reduce the upkeep and redundancy, I am using the Flickr API to pull my latest images straight from my gallery over there. Clicking on any image will simply take you to its page within my Flickr gallery (external link).

A categorical listing of work, separated into albums, is located here (external link).


Jupiter Full Rotation (OPAL Cycle 24)

Jupiter Full Rotation (OPAL Cycle 24)

This is a 3d rendering of Jupiter using OPAL data mapped to a Jupiter-shaped spheroid. I was careful to map the cloud bands accurately to the correct latitude. I also tried to replicate some of the effects of peering at Jupiter through the Hubble telescope by using a few shader hacks in Blender. The result appears fairly realistic.

We are looking at Jupiter at an inclination of -3°, so if you feel that you can see a little more of the southern pole than the northern, that is why. I don’t know the exact inclination with respect to HST at the time, but when I matched it to single exposure observations, somewhere around 2-4° seemed about right. The phase angle was 1° at the time so solar illumination is almost straight on.

This animation represents Jupiter as it appeared around 2017 April.

A link to the OPAL maps is here:
archive.stsci.edu/prepds/opal/

Red: WFC3/UVIS F631N
Green: WFC3/UVIS F502N
Blue: WFC3/UVIS 395N

North is not up, but Jupiter’s north pole is.


Jupiter & Io 2017 Apr 03

Jupiter & Io 2017 Apr 03

I did a quick Twitter thread talking a bit about what goes into processing one of these Jupiter images. This particular one I also wanted to show why I didn’t like the official release image released last year. For that image, the sides of Jupiter were trimmed off, making it look a lot rounder than it is. The clouds are also a bit misaligned in some places, resulting in some odd colorful fringing if one looks closely. It’s been bugging me for quite a while now. I’m afraid of seeming antagonistic about things sometimes.

Here’s a link to the thread turned into a "moment":
twitter.com/i/moments/1058865553001967616

Did some final tweaks after the Twitter thread including filling in the left side and some sharpening. Note that part of Io was missing in the F631N data, so some of the F502N data was adapted to make the moon appear complete. The end result is probably not much different visually from how it would have appeared if Io wasn’t slightly off the edge.

This image represents Jupiter as it appeared on 2017 April 03 at 02:50:19 UTC.

Data from the following proposal comprises this image:
Hubble 2020: Outer Planet Atmospheres Legacy (OPAL) Program

Red: WFC3/UVIS F631N
Green: WFC3/UVIS F502N
Blue: WFC3/UVIS 395N

North is 50.56° clockwise from up.


Jupiter in Five Filters

Jupiter in Five Filters

Ok, another version of the Extended Spectrum Jupiter, this time with five filters instead of three. The difference is very apparent as the additional filters provided further wavelength coverage and provided a less drastic separation of colors. It’s still quite colorful, as you can see.

The same limb brightening is apparent with reddish hues more prominent at the poles and blue and cyan at the equatorial regions.

The Great Red Spot appears intensely red as it was relatively dark in both visible and near-uv wavelengths. Ahead of the GRS, nearly centered on the southern hemisphere, is Red Spot Junior.

Io appears at the upper right as a glowing red dot. It appears less intense in this version due to the additional filters.

This image represents Jupiter as it appeared on 2017 Feb 02 at 03:00:20 UTC.

Observations from the following proposal were used to create this image:
archive.stsci.edu/proposal_search.php?mission=hst&id=...

Red: WFC3 UVIS FQ889N
Orange: WFC3 UVIS F502N
Green: WFC3 UVIS F395N
Cyan: WFC3 UVIS F275W
Blue: WFC3 UVIS F225W

North is up.


Jupiter in Extended Spectrum

Jupiter in Extended Spectrum

I’m torturing Jupiter again with strange filter combinations. This one combines near-infrared, visible green, and near-ultraviolet light. Shorter wavelengths are scattered along the equatorial regions, appearing as a ghostly blue glow. Longer wavelengths are more prominent at the poles, causing them to glow red. I remain unsure if this is scattering or emission, though I am leaning towards atmospheric scattering. A more familiar example is our planet Earth, which itself can appear slightly blue at its limb.

The Great Red Spot appears intensely red as it was relatively dark in both visible and near-uv wavelengths. Ahead of the GRS, nearly centered on the southern hemisphere, is Red Spot Junior.

Io appears at the upper right as a fiercely glowing red dot. Io is much brighter than Jupiter itself at this particular band of near-infrared, and it was bright enough this time to have saturated (turned 100% white) the sensor, destroying some details.

This image represents Jupiter as it appeared on 2017 Feb 02 at 03:00:20 UTC.

Observations from the following proposal were used to create this image:
archive.stsci.edu/proposal_search.php?mission=hst&id=...

Red: WFC3 UVIS FQ889N
Green: WFC3 UVIS F502N
Blue-Cyan: WFC3 UVIS F275W

North is up.


PN M 3-1

PN M 3-1

Saw this lovely little planetary nebula in the news today for its closely orbiting binary star system, and realized I hadn’t processed it.

ras.ac.uk/news-and-press/research-highlights/ultra-close-...

For the academically interested, an astronomical paper on that is available here:
academic.oup.com/mnrasl/article/482/1/L75/5064238

h/t: Daniel Fischer

Did things a little differently for this one. Used the c0f FITS files from MAST instead of the processed ones from the HLA. The results seem a bit cleaner. That means this image is not geometrically corrected, but the WFPC2/PC detector is such a tiny field of view that it doesn’t matter much. It also means the pixel scale is different from all the HLA processed imagery, which does matter. I’ve noted it below.

Data from Proposal 6347 were used to create this image.
A Search for Jets in Planetary Nebulae

Pixel scale at full size (636x614 px) is 0.04554" per pixel

Red: WFPC2/PC F658N
Green: Pseudo
Blue: WFPC2/PC F656N

North is up.


LMC N63A

LMC N63A

Evidence of a supernova remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Apparently the leading edge of an otherwise invisible (in these wavelengths) bubble expanding outward and colliding with some gas, which causes that gas to glow nicely.

I’ve long thought this one of the strangest patches of glowing gas. Every once in a while I see the image almost at random, and I always pause for it. Decided to process it myself just to stare at it some more. Looks like a balloon popped in space.

Data from the following proposals were used to create this image:
High Resolution Imaging of Bubble and Superbubbles in HII Regions
Supernova Remnants in a Cloudy Interstellar Medium

Orange: F673N WFPC2/WF
Cyan: F656N WFPC2/WF
Blue: F502N WFPC2/WF

North is NOT up. It is 40.2° clockwise from up.


Arp-Madore 135-650

Arp-Madore 135-650

One-color image of the disturbed galaxy Arp-Madore 135-650, also known as NGC 646. This was observed for one of the gap-filler programs. If I could make a color image, it might appear blueish up top where all the star formation is ongoing, and less blue at the bottom. This is what makes the galaxy interesting, according to a brief mention on Twitter by principle investigator Julianne Dalcanton: twitter.com/dalcantonJD/status/1038436462876741633

The puzzle is to figure out why is it all clumpy and star-formy on one side, but smooth and not so much on the other side.

I cleaned off a satellite trail and a few hundred cosmic rays.

Data from the following proposal is used to create this image:
Establishing HST’s Low Redshift Archive of Interacting Systems

All channels: ACS/WFC F606W

North is NOT up. It is 43.07° counter-clockwise from up.


A Green Cat's Eye Nebula

A Green Cat's Eye Nebula

Just messing around. NGC 6543 is a bright planetary nebula in the constellation of Draco. Previously I have done a blue version of this, but it is probably more appropriate for it to be cyan or green due to the [OIII] emission.

Some notes on the processing: I combined High Resolution Channel (HRC) and Wide Field Channel (WFC) data to create a more detailed image than before, at least in the brightest parts of the nebula. Furthermore, one of the difficulties with these observations I hadn’t realized before is that they were made to test Hubble’s ramp filters, and the ramp filter info is buried in the image headers where you have to know to look. I’ve included it in the channel data this time. The ramp follows the pound sign.

Red: ACS/HRC & WFC FR656N#6725
Green: ACS/HRC & WFC FR505N#5007
Blue: ACS/HRC & WFC FR388N#3727

North is NOT up. It is 35° counter-clockwise from up.


NGC 6000

NGC 6000

A picturesque spiral galaxy perhaps most notable for being the 6000th entry in the New General Catalog. Hubble has looked at this galaxy a few times for stellar and galactic surveying, but never specifically because there is anything about this galaxy that makes it interesting on its own. Beautiful, but typical. I will say that the small, bright spiral in the nucleus amuses me. If I were to turn it 180°, it would be a 6, which would be fitting for it since it is NGC 6000. However, I think that would look "upside-down" if there is such a thing for galaxies.

There is an asteroid trail somewhere in this picture.

The chip gap was filled with cloned data. The image has clarity, sharpness, and saturation adjustments.

Data from Proposal 15166 were used to create this image.
Continuing a Snapshot Survey of the Sites of Recent, Nearby Supernovae: Cycles 25 & 26

Red: WFC3/UVIS F814W
Green: Pseudo
Blue: WFC3/UVIS F555W

North is NOT up. It is 60.43° clockwise from up.


Green Pea Illustration

Green Pea Illustration

An attempt to visualize what a green pea galaxy might look like if we could see one up close. Hubble recently took an observation of one, and it left me a tad dissatisfied. Did you know that there is no nearby example of a green pea galaxy, or anything even similar? Actually, these tiny smudges are considered nearby compared to, say, something twice as far away. What I mean is they are small enough and far enough away that we can’t see any details. They are near enough to do spectroscopy though, which tells us a lot about them.

I decided to illustrate how I thought it might look, but my first try needed some modification. After a brief Twitter exchange, Drs. Sangeeta Malhortra and William Keel set me in the right direction. Hate on Twitter all you want, but it’s sometimes very useful!

I used a combination of clone stamp painting for the star clusters and free airbrushing with my pen tablet for the green clouds/streamers. The base galaxy I modified was a real dwarf galaxy I processed a while back: flic.kr/p/XgFVxh

There’s a really great figure in this paper showing some pea galaxy details! They are still quite small and fuzzy, but some of the tendrils can be seen in some of them.

Data from Gems of the Galaxy Zoos inspired this work. Specifically, observations jds42kcfq and jds42kceq. The original observed galaxy takes up about 21x31 pixels on the detector.

If this was a real observation, it would probably use a combination of wideband near-infrared, visible green, and near-UV filters along with narrowband H-alpha and [OIII] filters.

North is technically 136.53° clockwise from up.


There are more pictures at my Flickr Gallery (external link)